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Scientific Studies

There is already a very substantial amount of published scientific information on Stevia rebaudiana in specialized journals and some media :

We have selected some scientific papers and books.

On Internet there are many discussion forums on this topic.

Our list of external links will bring you some published opinions that we find useful and interesting.

Any selection needs to be completed. If you think we have omitted something important, please let us know.

Etudes toxicologiques :

Akashi H. and Yokoyama Y. (1975) Security of dried-Leaf Extracts of Stevia. Toxicological Tests. Food Industry 18, 34-43. 

Anonymous: Voedingsaanbevelingen voor België, (D/1996/7795/12) Ed. G. De Backer, Zevecotestraat 43, B-9830 Sint-Martens-Latem, pp 77.

 Aze, Y., K. Toyoda, K. Imaida, S. Hayashi, T. Imazawa, Y. Hayashi and M. Takahashi (1991): Subchronic oral toxicity study of stevioside in F344 rats; Bulletin of National Institute of Hygenic Science 109, 48-54.

 Boeckh-Haebisch E.M.A. (1992): Pharmacological Trial of a concentrated crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni in healthy volunteers; Arq. Biol. Tecnol. 35(2), 299-314.

 Bracht, A.M., Kemmelmeier, F.S., Ishii, E.L., Alvarez, M., Bracht, A., 1985. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana natural products on cellular and sub-cellular metabolism. Arq. Biol. Tecnol. 28, 431-455.

 Chan, P., Tomlinson, B., Chen, Y.-J., Liu, J.-C., Hsieh, M.-H., Cheng, J.-T., 2000. A double-blind placebo-controlled study pf the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in human hypertension. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 50, 215-220.

 Chan, P., Xu, D.-Y., Liu, J.-C., Chen, Y.-J., Tomlinson, B., Huang, W.-P., Cheng, J.-T., 1998. The effect of stevioside on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 63, 1679-1684.

 Curi, R., Alvarez, M., Bazotte, R.B., Botion, L.M., Godoy, J.L., Bracht, A., 1986. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans. Brazilian J. Med. Biol. Res. 19, 771-774.

 Das S., A.K. Das, R.A. Murphy, I.C. Punwani, M.P. Nasution and A.D. Kinghorn (1992): Evaluation of the Cariogenic Potential of the Intense Natural Sweeteners Stevioside and Rebaudioside A. Caries Res. 26, 363-366.

 Farnsworth, N.R. (1973) Current status of sugar substitutes. Cosmet. Perfum. 88, 27-35.

 Gardana, C., Simonetti, P., Canzi, E., Zanchi, R., Pietta, P.G, 2003. Metabolism of stevioside and rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana extracts by human microflora. J. Agric. Food Chem. (submitted).

 Geuns, J.M.C., 2002. Safety evaluation of Stevia and stevioside. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (Ed.), Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Vol. 27: Bioactive Natural Products (Part H), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.299-319.

 Geuns, J.M.C., 2003. Molecules of interest: Stevioside. Phytochemistry 64, 913-921.

 Geuns, J.M.C., Augustijns, P., Mols, R., Buyse, J.G., Driessen, B., 2003a. Metabolism of stevioside in pigs and intestinal absorption characteristics of Stevioside, Rebaudioside A and Steviol. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41, 1599-1607.

 Geuns, J.M.C., Malheiros, R.D., Moraes, V.M.B., Decuypere, E.M.-P., Compernolle, F., Buyse, J.G., 2003b. Metabolism of stevioside by chickens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 1095-1101.

 Geuns, J.M.C., Bruggeman, V., and Buyse, J.G., 2003 c. Effect of stevioside and steviol on the developing broiler embryos. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 5162-5167.

 Hagiwara A., S. Fukushima and M. Kitaori (1984) Effects of the three sweeteners on rats urinary bladder carcinogenesis initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine. Gann 75, 763-768.

 Hutapea A.M., Ch. Toskulkao, D. Buddhasukh, P. Wilairat and Th. Glinsukon (1997) Digestion of Stevioside, a Natural Sweetener, by Various Digestive Enzymes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 23, 177-186.

 Huxtable, R.J., 2002. Pharmacology and toxicology of stevioside, rebaudioside A, and steviol. In: Kinghorn, A.D., (Ed.), Stevia, the genus Stevia. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles, vol. 19. Taylor and Francis, London and NY, pp. 160-177.

 Kennelly, E.J., 2002. Sweet and non-sweet constituents of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)

 Bertoni. In: Kinghorn, A.D., (Ed.), Stevia, the genus Stevia. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Industrial Profiles, vol. 19. Taylor and Francis, London and NY, pp. 68-85.

 Kinghorn, A.D., 2002. Overview. In: Kinghorn, A.D., (Ed.), Stevia, the genus Stevia. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles, vol. 19. Taylor and Francis, London and NY, pp. 1-17.

 Kinghorn A.D. (1992): Food Ingredient Safety Review: Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Herb Research Foundation, USA.

 Klongpanichpak S., C. Toskulkao, P. Temcharoen, S. Apibal, T. Glinsukon (1997): Lack of Mutagenicity of Stevioside and Steviol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA100. J. Med. Assoc. Thailand 80, 121-128.

 Konishima, T., Takasaki, M., 2002. Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds. Pure Appl. Chem. 74, 1309-1316.

 Koyama, E., Kitazawa, K., Ohori, Y., Sakai, N., Izawa, O., Kakegawa, K., Fujino, A., Ui, M., 2001. Intestinal degradation, absorption, and hepatic metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, Stevia mixture. Proceedings second IUPA-International Symposium on Sweeteners, Hiroshima p.12.

 Koyama, E., Kitazawa, K, Ohori, Y, Izawa, O., Kakegawa, K., Fujino, A., Ui, M., 2003a. In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, Stevia mixture and enzymatically modified Stevia in human intestinal microflora. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41, 359-374.

 Koyama, E., Sakai, N., Ohori, Y, Kitazawa, K, Izawa, O., Kakegawa, K., Fujino, A., Ui, M., 2003b. Absorption and metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, Stevia related compounds in human and rat. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41, 875-883.

 Liu, J.-C., Kao, P.-K., Chan, P., Hsu, Y.-H., Hou, C.-C., Lien, G.-S., Hsieh, M.-H., Chen, Y.-J., Cheng, J.-T., 2003. Mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of stevioside in anesthesized dogs. Pharmacology 67, 14-20.

 Matsui M., Matsui K., Kawasaki Y., Oda Y., Noguchi T., Kitagawa Y., Sawada M., Hayashi M., Nohmi T., Yoshihira K., Ishidate M. and Sofuni T. (1996) Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Stevioside and Steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo Mutagenicity Assays. Mutagenesis 11(6), 573-579.

 Matsui M., T. Sofuni and T. Nohmi (1996b): Regionally-targeted mutagenesis by metabolically-activated steviol: DNA sequence analysis of steviol-induced mutants of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene of Salmonella typhimurium TM677.

 Medon P.J., J.M. Pezzuto, J.M. Hovanec-Brown, N.P. Nanayakkara, D.D. Soejarto, S.K. Kamath and A.D. Kinghorn (1982): Safety assesment of some Stevia rebaudiana sweet principles. Fed. Proc. 41, 1568-1982.

 Melis M.S. (1996) A crude Extract of Stevia rebaudiana increases the Renal Plasma Flow of Normal and Hypertensive Rats. Brazilian J. Medical and Biological Research 29 (5), 669-675.

 Melis M.S. (1999): Effects of chronic administration of Stevia rebaudiana on fertility in rats. J. Ethnopharmacology 167, 157-161.

 Mitsuhashi H. (1976) Safety of stevioside. In Tama Biochemical Co. Ltd. Report on Safety of Stevia. pp. 1-20 (1981).

 Mizutani, K., Tanaka, O., 2002. Use of Stevia rebaudiana sweeteners in Japan. In: Kinghorn, A.D., (Ed.), Stevia, the genus Stevia. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles, vol. 19. Taylor and Francis, London and NY, pp. 178-195.

 Mori N., M. Sakanoue, M. Takcuchi, K. Shimpo and T. Tanabe (1981) Effect of Stevioside on fertility in rats. Shokuhin Eiseiga Ku Zasshi (J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn) 22, 409-414.

 Nakayama K., D. Kasahara and F. Yamamoto (1986) Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of Stevioside in Rats. J. Food Hygienic Society of Japan 27, 1-8.

 Oliveira-Filho R.M., O.A. Uehara, C.A.S.A. Minett and L.B.S. Valle: Chronic Administration of Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni in Rats: Endocrine Effects. Gen. Pharmac. 20(2), 187-191 (1989).

 Pezzuto J.M., C.M. Compadre, S.M. Swanson, N.P. D. Nanayakkara and A.D. Kinghorn (1985): Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic. Proc. Natl. Acac. Sci. USA, 82, 2478 - 2482.

 Pezzutto, J., Che C.-T., McPherson, D.D., Zhu, H.-P., Topgu, G., Erdelmeier, C.A.J., and Gordell, G.A. et al. (1991): DNA as an affinity probe useful in the detection and isolation of biologically active natural products. Journal of Natural Products 54, 1522-1530.

 Planas, G. M. and J. Kuc: Contraceptive properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Science 162 (1968) p. 1007

 Pomaret M. and R. Lavieille (1931): Le principe à saveur sucrée du Kaà-hè-é (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). Quelques propriétés physiologiques du Stévioside. Bulletin de la Société de Chimie biologique, 13, 1248-1252.

 Procinska E., B.A. Bridges and J.R. Hanson (1991): Interpretation of results with 8-azaguanine resistance system in Salmonella typhimurium: no evidence for direct acting mutagenesis by 15-oxosteviol, a possible metabolite of steviol. Mutagenesis 6 (2), 165-167.

 Shiotsu, S., 1996. Fertility study of Stevia decoction in rats. Tech. J. Food Chem. Chemicals. 4, 108-113.

 Sinchomi, D., Marcorities, P., 1989. Etude de l'activité anti-androgénique d'un extrait de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Plantes médicinales et phytothérapie, 23, 282-287.

 Starrat, A.N., Kirby, C.W., Pocs, R., Brandle, J.E., 2002. Rebaudioside F, a diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana. Phytochemistry 59, 367-370.

 Temcharoen, P., Pimbua, J., Glinsukon, T., Rojanapo, W., Apibal, S., 1998. Mutagenic activity of steviol to Salmonella typhimurium TM 677: Comparison of the activity of S9 liver fractions from five laboratory animal species. Bull. Health Sci. & Tech. 1, 38-45.

 Temcharoen, P., Suwannatrai, M., Klongpanichpak, S., Apibal, S., Glinsukon, T., Toskulkao, C., 2000. Evaluation of the effect of steviol on chromosomal damage using micronucleus test in three laboratory animal species. J. Med. Assoc. Thailand 83, 101-108.

 Terai, T., Ren, H., Mori, G., Yamaguchi, Y., Hayashi, T., 2002. Mutagenicity of steviol and its oxidative derivatives in Salmonella typhimurium TM677. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 50, 1007-1010.

 Sinchomi D. and P. Marcorities (1989): Etude de l'activité anti-androgénique d'un extrait de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Plantes médicinales et phtythérapie, 23 (4), 282-287.

 Soejarto, D.D., Compadre, C.M., Medon,P.J., Kamath, S.K., and Kinghorn, A.D. (1983): Potential Sweetening Agents of Plant Origin, II. Field Search for Sweet-Tasting Stevia Species; Economic Botany 37, 71-79.

 Suttajit M., U. Vinitketkaumnuen, U. Meevatee and D. Buddhasukh (1993): Mutagenicity and Human Chromosomal Effect of Stevioside, a Sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101, 53-56.

 Toskulkao C., Deechakawan W., Leardkamolkarn V., Glinsukon T. and Buddhasukh D. (1994) The low calorie natural sweetener stevioside: nephrotoxicity and its relationship to urinary enzyme excretion in the rat. Phytotherapy Research 8(5), 281-286.

 Toskulkao C, L. Chaturat, P. Temcharoen and T. Glinsukon (1997): Acute toxicity of stevioside, a natural sweetener, and its metabolite, steviol, in several animal species. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 20, 31-44.

 Totté, N., Charon,L., Rohmer, M., Compernolle, F., Baboeuf, I., Geuns, J.M.C., 2000. Biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol, an ent-kaurene derivative from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. Tetrahedron Letters 41, 6407-6410.

 Totté, N., Van den Ende, W., Van Damme, E.J.M., Compernolle, F., Baboeuf, I. and Geuns, J. M.C., 2003. Cloning and heterologous expression of early genes in gibberellin and steviol biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Can. J. Bot. 81,517-522.

 Toyoda, K., H. Matsui, T. Shoda, C. Uneyama, K. Takada and M. Takahashi (1997): Assessment of the Carcinogenicity of Stevioside in F344 Rats; Food and Chemical Toxicology 35, 597-603.

 Usami M., K. Sakemi, K. Kawashima, M. Tsuda and Y. Ohno (1995): Teratogenicity study of stevioside in rats. Eisei Shikenjo Hokolu - Bulletin of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences 113, 31-35.

 Wasuntarawat C., P. Emcharoen, C. Toskulkao, P. Mungkornkarn, M. Suttajit and T. Glinsukon (1998): Developmental Toxicity of Steviol, a Metabolite of Stevioside, in the Hamster; Drug and Chemical Toxicology 21, 207-222.

 **WHO Food Additives (1999) Series 42: Safety evaluation of certain food additives ”Stevioside”, Genf, 119-143.

 Wingard, R.E., Brown, J.P., Enderlin, F.E., Dale, J.A., Hale, R.L., Seitz, C.T., 1980. Intestinal degradation and absorption of the glycosidic sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A. Experientia 36, 519-520.

 Wood D.J., Lirette A., Crober D.C. and Ju-Hy (1996) The effect of Stevia as a feed sweetener on weight gain and feed consumption of Broiler chickens. Can. J. Animal Sc. 76(2), 267-269.

 Xili L., B. Chengjiany, X. Eryi, S. Reiming, W. Yuengming, S. Haodong and H. Zhiyian (1992): Chronic oral Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Study of Stevioside in Rats. Fd Chem. Toxic. 30(11), 957-965.

 Yamada A., Ohgaki S., Noda T. and Shimizu M. (1985) Chronic toxicity of dietary Stevia Extracts. J. of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 26(2), 169-183.

 Yasukawa, K., Kitanaka, S., Seo, S., 2002. Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25, 1488-1490.

 Yodyingyuad V. and S. Bunyawong (1991) Effect of stevioside on growth and reproduction. Human Reproduction, 6 (1), 158-165.